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General -  how to deal with battery types
Posted by Orwah Issa on 2017/8/29 (113 reads)

how to use, maintain and dispose of batteries depending on type.

What can I do In order to ensure good battery life?
is it recommended to recharging the battery only when it is fully discharged? 
or the opposite , that it is recommended to never let my battery fully discharged?
“What can I do to keep my batteries longer?” many people ask, 
this summary about batteries recommendation , can help you to prolong battery life .

Because of similarities within systems, we can speak about 3 chemistries types : lead, nickel and lithium.
and this Table display how to give proper attention for each :



how to use, maintain and dispose of batteries:

Battery care

Lead acid: Flooded, sealed, gel, AGM

Nickel-based:
NiCd, NiMH

Lithium-ion: Cobalt, manganese, NMC

Best way
to charge

Apply saturated charge to prevent sulfation; can remain on charge with correct float voltage.

Avoid getting battery too hot on charge. Do not leave battery in charger for more than a few days Subject to memory.

Partial and random charge is fine; does not need full charge; lower voltage limit preferred; keep battery cool.

Charge methods

Constant voltage to 2.40–2.45/cell, float
at 2.25–2.30V/cell. Battery should stay cool; no fast charge possible. Charge time 14–16h.

Constant current, NiCd can be fast charged without stress;  trickle charge at 0.05C.
Slow charge  = 14h
Rapid charge = 3h*
Fast charge   = 1h* NiCd

* Recommended

Constant voltage to 4.20V/cell; no trickle charge; battery can
stay in charger.
Rapid charge = 3h*
Fast charge = 1h

* Recommended

Discharge

Can endure high peak currents. Avoid full discharges. Charge after each use.

Do not over-discharge with a heavy load; cell reversal causes short. Avoid full discharges.

Prevent full cycles, apply some charge after a full discharge to keep the protection circuit alive.

How to prolong battery

Limit deep cycling; do not deep-cycle starter battery. Apply fully saturation charge. Avoid heat.

Discharge batteries that are in regular use (mainly NiCd) to 1V/cell every 1–3 months to prevent memory.

Keep cool. Operate in mid SoC of 20–80%. Prevent ultra-fast charging and high loads (most Li-ion)

TransportFlooded: Class 8 restrictions, provide “corrosive” label.
Non-spillable: Class 8 exempt.
Prevent short by placing battery in clear plastic bag.
See BU-704: How to Transport Batteries
Loose cell under Section II must be shipped at 30% state-of-charge.
See BU-704a Shipping Lithium-based Batteries

Storage

Keep cells at >2.05V. Apply topping charge every 6 months to prevent sulfation.

Store in cool place; NiCd stores for 5 years; prime before use

Store at 40% charge in cool place (40% SoC reads 3.75–3.80V/cell). Do not go below 2.0V/cell.

Disposal

Toxic. Do not dispose. Electrolyte corrosive. Profitable to recycle.

NiCd:  Do not dispose.
NiMH: May be disposed in low volume

Low toxicity. Can be disposed in low volume. Best to recycle.

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